What type of protein is LDL receptor?
The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) is a mosaic protein of 839 amino acids (after removal of 21-amino acid signal peptide) that mediates the endocytosis of cholesterol-rich low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
What is the LDL receptor composed of?
The LDL receptor gene (LDLR) is found on chromosome 19 p13. 1-13.3 and spans 45 kb. The gene contains 18 exons constituting a 5.3-kb mRNA and encodes a single-chain glycoprotein that consists of 839 amino acids (Fig. 9-1).
What is lrp3?
The NLRP3 gene provides instructions for making a protein called cryopyrin. Cryopyrin is a member of a family of proteins called intracellular “NOD-like” receptor (NLR) proteins. Cryopyrin is found mainly in white blood cells and in cartilage-forming cells (chondrocytes).
Where are LDL receptors present?
The physiologically important LDL receptors are located primarily in the liver, where their number is regulated by the cholesterol content of the hepatocyte. When the cholesterol content of hepatocytes is raised by ingestion of diets high in saturated fat and cholesterol, LDL receptors fall and plasma LDL levels rise.
How does LDL bind to LDL receptor?
LDL-R FUNCTION LDL-R binds LDL at neutral pH on the cell surface of hepatocytes. The ligand-receptor complex internalizes through receptor-mediated endocytosis at clathrin-coated pits, releasing its cargo in the endosomes upon exposure to acidic pH (2).
What does VLDL stand for?
VLDL stands for very low density lipoprotein. Lipoproteins are made up of cholesterol, triglycerides, and proteins. They move cholesterol, triglycerides, and other lipids (fats) around the body. VLDL is one of the three main types of lipoproteins.
Which receptor are present in liver for uptake of LDL?
The LDL receptor is present on all cell types; however, the liver contains approximately 70% of the total body pool of LDL receptors. The LDL receptor recognizes apoE and apoB-100, but not apoB-48. ApoE-containing chylomicron remnants, VLDL, LDL, IDL, and HDL can all be taken up via the LDL receptor.
What does NLRP3 Inflammasome do?
The NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical component of the innate immune system that mediates caspase-1 activation and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β/IL-18 in response to microbial infection and cellular damage.
Does VLDL bind to LDL receptor?
Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) receptor is a member of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor family. It binds triglyceride rich lipoprotein (TGRL) but not LDL, because it recognizes apolipoprotein (apo)E only but not apoB.
What is VLDL vs LDL?
The main difference between VLDL and LDL is that they have different percentages of the cholesterol, protein, and triglycerides that make up each lipoprotein. VLDL contains more triglycerides. LDL contains more cholesterol. VLDL and LDL are both considered types of “bad” cholesterol.
What protein targets the LDL receptor for intracellular disposal in lysosomes?
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) binds to LDL receptor (LDLR) and targets it for lysosomal degradation in cells.
Is VLDL 11 good?
Your VLDL level should be less than 30 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter). Anything higher than that puts you at risk for heart disease and stroke.
What is the function of pyroptosis?
Pyroptosis is a form of inflammatory programed cell death pathway activated by human and mouse caspase-1, human caspase-4 and caspase-5, or mouse caspase-11. These inflammatory caspases are used by the host to control bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan pathogens.
What does NLRP3 inflammasome do?
Is NLRP3 a PRR?
NLRP3 is a component of the innate immune system that functions as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that recognizes pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
Is VLDL the same as lipoprotein A?
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) are two different types of lipoproteins found in your blood. Lipoproteins are a combination of proteins and various types of fats. They carry cholesterol and triglycerides through your bloodstream.
Is VLDL 21 good?
Are there 2 types of LDL?
In most of the studies using these methods, LDL particles are classified into 3 or 4 subclasses, including large (LDL I), intermediate (LDL II), small (LDL III), and, in some studies, very small (LDL IV) LDLs [3, 18]. LDL III and LDL IV (when discerned) are referred to as sdLDL.