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Is balantidiasis contagious?

Is balantidiasis contagious?

Yes. Balantidium coli is contagious by the fecal-oral route.

What age group has the highest risk of exposure to balantidiasis?

Likewise, the infection rate was similar among males and females (x2 = 0.72, df = 1, p = 0.393). However, balantidiosis infection was higher among participants aged 21–40-year-old (x2 = 7.9, df = 2, p = 0.019). In addition, human balantidiosis was associated with educational level.

How long does Balantidium coli last?

Mature cysts are passed in the stool and can remain viable for up to two weeks in the environment [7]. Cysts are considered the main infective stage; trophozoites can also be passed in stool but generally disappear soon after passage [3].

What is the life cycle of Balantidium coli?

Balantidium coli has two stages in its life cycle: the active, feeding, replicating stage (the trophozoite) that is found most commonly in the lumen of the large intestine, and the nonreplicating encysted stage (the cyst) that develops in the lower colon and is excreted in the feces.

How is balantidiasis treated?

Three medications are used most often to treat Balantidium coli: tetracycline, metronidazole, and iodoquinol. Tetracycline*: adults, 500 mg orally four times daily for 10 days; children ≥ 8 years old, 40 mg/kg/day (max. 2 grams) orally in four doses for 10 days.

What are the symptoms of balantidiasis?

Balantidium coli infection is mostly asymptomatic, but people with other serious illnesses can experience persistent diarrhea, abdominal pain, and sometimes a perforated colon. When traveling to endemic tropical countries, Balantidium coli infection can be prevented by following good hygiene practices.

Where does Balantidium coli multiply?

Some trophozoites invade the wall of the colon and multiply, causing ulcerative pathology in the colon wall. Some return to the lumen and disintegrate. Mature cysts are passed with feces.

How is Balantidiasis diagnosed?

Diagnosis is based on detection of trophozoites in stool samples from symptomatic patients or in tissue collected during endoscopy. Cysts are less frequently encountered, and are most likely to be recovered from formed stool. Balantidium coli is passed intermittently and once outside the colon is rapidly destroyed.

What is Balantidiasis disease?

Balantidiasis is a rare infectious disease caused by the single celled (protozoan) parasite Balantidium coli. This parasite may be passed directly to humans by contact with pig feces or indirectly by drinking contaminated water.

How is balantidiasis diagnosed?

How is balantidiasis transmitted?

Parasites – Balantidiasis (also known as Balantidium coli Infection) Balantidium coli, though rare in the US, is an intestinal protozoan parasite that can infect humans. These parasites can be transmitted through the fecal-oral route by contaminated food and water.

What is the disease type of balantidiasis?

Disease definition. Balantidiasis is an infectious disease, rare in western countries. It is caused by Balantidium coli, a single celled parasite (ciliate protozoan) that is usually associated with intestinal infection in areas associated with pig rearing.

What is the life cycle of Balantidium?

The life cycle of balantidium consists of sexual and asexual phases. The sexual phase is also divided into sexual reproduction: conjugation, characterized by exchange of nuclei between two representatives of balantidium and asexual reproduction, which is expressed in the transverse division of infusorians.

What are the symptoms of Balantidium infection?

Mostly asymptomatic, Balantidium infection can cause such symptoms as diarrhea and abdominal pain. These include persistent diarrhea, dysentery, abdominal pain, weight loss, nausea, and vomiting.

What are the treatment options for balantidiasis?

A more complex and more invasive diagnostic method involves scraping the ulcer and examining the tissue for trophozoites. The antibiotic drug most frequently used to treat Balantidiasis is tetracycline. When tetracycline cannot be given (i.e., allergy), replacement drug therapy may include the drugs iodoquinol or metronidazole.

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