Menu Close

Which classes of medications are known to cause birth defects?

Which classes of medications are known to cause birth defects?

Each of the following drugs or drug groups may cause birth defects in a developing fetus:

  • ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) inhibitors.
  • angiotensin II antagonist.
  • isotretinoin (an acne drug)
  • alcohol.
  • cocaine.
  • high doses of vitamin A.
  • lithium.
  • male hormones.

Which drug crosses placental barrier?

Drugs which have been shown to undergo significant placental metabolism include azidothymidine, dexamethasone, and prednisolone (van der Aa et al., 1998). The anticonvulsant oxcarbazepine (but not carbamazepine) is also metabolized to some extent by the human placenta (Pienimäki et al., 1997; Myllynen et al., 1998).

In which stage of pregnancy is a fetus most susceptible to drugs?

The fetus is most vulnerable during the first 12 weeks. During this period of time, all of the major organs and body systems are forming and can be damaged if the fetus is exposed to drugs, infectious agents, radiation, certain medications, tobacco and toxic substances.

What drug taken by the mother puts the fetus at risk for bleeding?

“Street” Drugs Cocaine is one of the most harmful drugs to unborn babies. Cocaine can cause a woman to miscarry and may cause preterm birth, bleeding, fetal death and fetal strokes, which can lead to brain damage and death.

Which medication has a black box warning for pregnancy?

ACE inhibitors are known to raise the risk of birth defects when taken later in pregnancy. The new study suggests that those risks may start earlier in pregnancy. Examples of ACE inhibitors include Zestril, Prinivil, Accupril, Monopril, and Lotensin.

Which of the following drugs will cross the placenta most readily?

Thiopental is the most commonly used induction agent in parturients. It is a highly lipid-soluble weak acid which is 61% unionized at plasma pH and 75% bound to plasma albumin. It rapidly crosses the placenta and is quickly cleared by the neonate after delivery.

Which drug do not cross placental barrier?

Most drugs with MW < 500 Da cross the placenta, and most drugs with MW > 1000 Da do not cross the placenta (ex. heparin, protamine, insulin). Neither succinylcholine (highly ionized) or non-depolarizing NMBDs (high molecular weights) cross the placenta.

What happens to babies born to mothers on drugs?

Babies born to moms who use drugs often have problems later in life, including: Learning and behavior problems. Slower-than-normal growth. Sudden infant death syndrome (also called SIDS).

What drugs should a pregnant woman not touch?

Medications You Should Avoid During Pregnancy

  • Chloramphenicol.
  • Cipro and levofloxacin.
  • Primaquine.
  • Sulfonamides.
  • Trimethoprim (Primsol)
  • Codeine.
  • Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)
  • Warfarin (Coumadin)

What is class C drug in pregnancy?

Category C: Studies in animals have revealed adverse effects on the fetus and there are no controlled studies in women, or studies in women and animals are not available. Drugs from this class can be given to pregnant women if the benefit to the mother outweighs the risk to the fetus.

What is Category D in pregnancy?

Category D There is positive evidence of human fetal risk based on adverse reaction data from investigational or marketing experience or studies in humans, but potential benefits may warrant use of the drug in pregnant women despite potential risks.

What drugs do not pass through the placenta?


  • All paralytics.
  • Glycopyrrolate.
  • Insulin.
  • Heparin.

What is the last organ to develop?

You may see some of the leftover hair after your baby is born. Most of this usually is gone within the first few weeks of life. Most babies move to a head-down position in the uterus toward the end, with the head on the mother’s pubic bone. The lungs are the last major organ to finish developing.

Which medication is contraindicated during pregnancy?

Some of the over-the-counter medicines that increase the chances of birth defects are: Bismuth subsalicylate (such as Pepto-Bismol). Phenylephrine or pseudoephedrine, which are decongestants. Avoid medicines with these ingredients during the first trimester.

What substances can cross the maternal fetal barrier?

Lead, cobalt, arsenic and selenium appear to pass the placental barrier by a diffusion mechanism. It was also found that the mercury levels in cord blood were almost double those of the mother, suggesting that the foetus may act as a filter for the maternal mercury levels during pregnancy.

What are the most common drugs used during pregnancy?

Drugs are used in over half of all pregnancies, and prevalence of use is increasing. The most commonly used drugs include antiemetics, antacids, antihistamines, analgesics, antimicrobials, diuretics, hypnotics, tranquilizers, and social and illicit drugs.

Which medication is considered safe during pregnancy?

Which Over-the-Counter Drugs Are Safe During Pregnancy?

Condition Safe OTC Medications to Take During Pregnancy*
First Aid Ointment Bacitracin J & J Neosporin
Headache Tylenol (acetaminophen)
Heartburn Gaviscon Maalox Mylanta Riopan Titralac TUMs
Hemorrhoids Anusol Preparation H Tucks Witch hazel

What are the signs of a drug baby?

Symptoms that the newborn is suffering from neonatal abstinence syndrome may include:

  • Crying that is excessive and/or high-pitched.
  • Irritability.
  • Trouble sleeping.
  • Excessive sucking.
  • Poor feeding, slow weight gain.
  • Diarrhea, vomiting.
  • Fever.
  • Blotchy skin.
Posted in Mixed