How to diagnose reflex syncope?
Tilt table (head-up tilt test): A test that records your blood pressure and heart rate on a minute-by-minute or beat-by-beat basis while the table is tilted to different levels as you stay head-up. The test can show abnormal cardiovascular reflexes that cause syncope.
How is NCS diagnosed and treated?
The diagnosis of NCS is often made through history and physical alone. Further testing may be required when the etiology of syncope is less clear, especially in older patients. Head-up tilt-table testing (HUT) has become a valuable tool for the diagnosis of NCS.
How do you manage syncope?
Treatment of patients with syncope focuses on the underlying cause of the symptom. For neurally mediated syncope, treatment can include patient education, tilt training (ie, repeated frequent tilting until the patient’s positive response becomes negative), pharmacological agents, and dual chamber pacing.
Is syncope considered an emergency?
The SFSR ECG criteria predicted 36 of 42 patients with cardiac outcomes, with a sensitivity of 86%, a specificity of 70%, and a negative predictive value of 99%. Syncope may be the manifestation of an acute life-threatening process but is generally not an emergency.
Is reflex syncope a heart condition?
It happens to men and women in about equal numbers. Unlike some other causes of fainting, vasovagal syncope does not signal an underlying problem with the heart or brain.
What are the symptoms of NCS?
Neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) can be quite varied in presentation. It tends to occur in younger patients and tends to exhibit 3 distinct phases that consist of a distinct prodrome (usually lightheadedness, nausea, diaphoresis, or visual changes) followed by a sudden loss of consciousness.
What is NCS syndrome?
Renal nutcracker syndrome (NCS) is a condition that occurs when the left renal vein (the vein that carries blood purified by the left kidney) becomes compressed. Signs and symptoms can vary from person to person. Some people may not have symptoms, while others develop severe and persistent symptoms.
What is the difference between syncope and vasovagal?
Syncope means fainting or passing out. When fainting is caused by certain triggers, like the sight of blood or a needle, or an intense emotion like fear or fright, it’s called vasovagal syncope. It’s the most common cause of fainting. Vasovagal syncope is sometimes referred to as a neurocardiogenic or reflex syncope.
What happens during cardiac syncope?
Cardiac syncope is a transient loss of consciousness due to a defect, either structural or electrical, which prevents the generation of enough cardiac output to perfuse the brain adequately.
What is the mechanism by which NCS occurs?
Vasovagal syncope or neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS) is caused by a drop in blood pressure, quickly followed by faster then slower heart rate resulting in poor blood and oxygen flow to the brain which results in temporary loss of consciousness. Neurocardiogenic syncope is also referred to as neurally mediated syncope.